Human Legacy Course/The Classical Age - Wikiversity

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Another elected official was the archon, who served as the chief of state in Athens.How did Greece change after the Peloponnesian War?The Persians, caught by surprise, counterattacked, but more Greeks closed in on them from the sides.

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The archon acted as the head of both the assembly and the Council of 500.The gap between rich and poor eventually led to conflict in Athens.Furthermore, the revolt made Persian emperor Darius angry enough to seek revenge.Being rich and mighty, however, also brought the city many powerful rivals.Merchants from other parts of the world moved to the city, bringing their own foods and customs.The third body of the government was a complex series of courts that heard trials and sentenced criminals.

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Why did he want to invade?Working closely with the assembly was the second of the main bodies, the Council of 500.This mutual fear led Athens and Sparta to declare war on each other in 431 BC.His son Xerxes, vowing to get revenge for his father, continued planning another attack on Greece.In 430 and 429 BC, a terrible plague struck Athens, changing the course of the war.To slow down the Persians, a group of Spartans and their allies gathered in a mountain pass at Thermopylae, through which the Persians would pass to get into Greece.

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As Persian forces marched into Greece, the Greeks worried that they would not have time to prepare their troops for battle.What was the ultimate result of the Battle of Marathon?Although most governing in Athens was done by the assembly, some elected officials had special roles to play.Though they outnumbered their foe, the Persians retreated.The Athenians expanded their port, built new roads, and constructed high walls around the city itself.

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People liked that he pushed the aristocrats out of office and increased trade to make Athens richer.The first was an assembly that included all people eligible to take part in the government.For the first several years of the war, neither side gained much of an advantage.Through his personal charisma and cleverness, Pericles became the most influential politician in Athens for many years.Xerxes, who had brought a throne to the shore to watch the battle from afar, saw his navy go down in defeat.

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The Greek victory at Marathon shocked both Greeks and Persians.With their opponents virtually helpless, the Greek warships cut them to pieces.The Peloponnesian War nearly destroyed Athens.As the leader of the Delian League, Athens was the richest, mightiest polis in Greece.Indeed, democracy developed slowly over a period of several centuries.The Athenians arrived at Marathon quickly and caught the Persians at work unloading their ships.The Persians attacked and burned the city but needed their fleet to bring them additional supplies.

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The prosperity of Athens was due in large part to its stable and effective government.This assembly made all of the laws and important decisions for Athens.Do you think a direct democracy would work today?According to ancient Greek accounts, the Persian army was so huge that it took them a week to cross a bridge they built into Greece, though this figure is certainly an exaggeration.Athens, by attacking the Greek mainland.At its height, the Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies.

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This type of system, in which all people vote directly on an issue, is called a direct democracy.After the Persian Wars, the people wanted to rebuild their city, which had been burned during the fighting.The resulting conflict, known as the Peloponnesian War, lasted many years.For decades after the Persian Wars, tension built between the Delian and Peloponnesian leagues.The fleet came ashore near a town called Marathon not far from Athens.The Athenians could not believe that they had defeated a much stronger foe.Faced with a much larger Persian army, they asked their fellow Greeks for help.

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The roots of the Persian Wars lay not in mainland Greece but in the region called Ionia in what is now Turkey.After the Persian Wars, Athens entered a golden age, an age in which it was the center of Greek culture and politics.The archon was seen as a public servant who could be removed from office or punished if he failed to serve the people well.In the 300s BC only about 10 percent of the total population of Athens could participate in running the city.He also encouraged the Athenians to introduce democracy into other parts of Greece.Why or why not?

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He allowed all men in Athens to take part in the assembly that governed the city and to serve on the juries that heard trials, but only wealthy men could run for or hold political office.What were the most significant elements of ancient Athenian democracy?Realizing that the Spartan army was stronger, the Athenians avoided any battles on land.After the plague ended, fighting heated up for a few years before the Athenians and Spartans agreed to a truce in 421 BC.Why is the period after the Persian Wars considered a golden age of Athenian history?

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The Greeks of Ionia, unhappy with Persian rule and wanting independence, rebelled in 499 BC.Some of the money for this rebuilding came from within Athens.The laws they had at that time were extremely harsh, and many people were unhappy with them.Greek cities, but they had fallen under Persian rule in the 500s BC.Persian troops set out for Greece.The Athenians built a series of grand temples on the acropolis, the grandest of which was the Parthenon, a grand temple dedicated to the goddess Athena.Called the Peloponnesian League, this alliance had been formed in the 500s BC to provide protection and security for its members.

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In the end, a local resident showed the Persians an alternate path through the mountains, which allowed them to surround and kill the Spartans.Early in its history, Athens was ruled by kings.Among the states that responded to the call was Sparta.Those people who were allowed to take part in the Athenian government were expected to do so fully.Persia for the invasion.

In this lecture, we will be discussing the Classical Age of Greece.The Athenians charged the beach in a phalanx, a tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of a wall of shields.Because the Persian ships were so much larger than the Greek vessels, they could not maneuver well in the strait.He firmly believed that it had the best government and the noblest people, and he thought that it should have monuments to prove its superiority to other cities.They had to:Vote in all electionsServe in office if electedServe on juriesServe in the military during war.After Peisistratus died, another reformer, Cleisthenes, took over Athens.His army included hundreds of thousands of soldiers and sailors together with all their animals, weapons, food, and other supplies.

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They sank many ships and sent swarms of soldiers onto others.Members of these courts, which could number up to 6, 000 people, were chosen from the assembly.The struggle for power in Greece led to a long cycle of warfare that left all of Greece vulnerable to attack.The Persians, humiliated, were furious.As a democracy, Athens was ruled by the people.Athens for a time but did not resolve it.The Greeks had won the Persian Wars.

It lost thousands of soldiers, hundreds of ships, huge sums of money, and most of its allies.In 480 BC, 10 years after the first invasion, Xerxes set out for Greece.Wanting revenge more than ever, Darius planned a second invasion of Greece, but he died in 486 BC, before he could launch that second invasion.Why did the members of the Peloponnesian League resent Athens?Peisistratus was a tyrant, a strongman who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people.As a result, Athens was a very cosmopolitan city.

Athens controlled its ships and money.The Persian army was now stuck in Greece, far from home and short on supplies.With the development of democracy around 500 BC, Athens entered its classical age, the period of its great achievements and triumphs.WikiversityHuman Legacy Course IThe Classical AgeLECTURER: Mr.Thank you very much for listening to this and goodbye.As a result of this strain, the Spartans could not keep control of Greece.

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Only free male Athenians over the age of 20 who had completed military training were allowed to vote.Many cities were interested in league membership, so the league grew wealthier and more powerful.In theory, this alliance was a league of equals; but as the largest and richest of its members, Athens actually controlled the entire alliance.The Spartans responded, but this time they took to the sea as well as the land.In 541 BC a politician named Peisistratus took advantage of the renewed conflict to seize power.Despite this assistance, the Persians put down the revolt.Besides being a skilled speaker and politician, Pericles was a great patron of the arts.

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How might the Persian Wars have ended differently if the Spartans had not held out at Thermopylae?According to legend, as soon as he was done with the code he left Greece and traveled for 10 years.Among these elected officials were the generals who led the city in war.Persian Empire, bringing Greece into war with a much larger and stronger opponent.Athens was the heart of Greek culture during this time.Sparta, too, was exhausted by the war.

Before long, the league, in effect, turned into an Athenian empire.The Spartans destroyed the Athenian fleet, leaving Athens with no choice but surrender in 404 BC.It was he who commissioned the building of the Parthenon and several other monuments on the Acropolis, and it was his idea to hire great artists and sculptors to decorate them.How did Athenian government change in the years leading up to the development of democracy?It met on a particular hill within the city, and all members who were present voted on each measure.

Draco thought the only way to end unrest was through harsh punishment, a belief reflected in his laws.Not wanting the Persians to get what they needed, a clever Athenian commander lured the Persian fleet into the narrow Strait of Salamis near Athens.Peace had come to Greece, at least for a brief time.His reforms set the stage for Athenian democracy.Any league members who rebelled were attacked by the league fleet, led by Athens, and forced back into the alliance.Why or why not?

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As a result, neither side could win more than minor victories against the other.Athens was the birthplace of democracy, but it had not always been a democratic city.Eventually, some league members began to resent Athenian dominance, but Athens would not allow these unhappy members to quit.The answer was simple.Though the two cities were bitter rivals, Athens and Sparta agreed to work together to fight the Persians.Adding to its appeal were grand festivals, public celebrations, and public events.

During the Golden Age, trade brought great wealth to Athens.Many people considered the rebuilt Athens, a city of stone and marble, the height of Greek culture and sophistication.The other members of the league were not happy that the Athenians used their collective funds to rebuild their own city, but none was powerful enough to stop Athens.For example, each tribe elected 50 men to serve on a Council of 500 that proposed laws.Despite his violent rise to power, Peisistratus was popular.

Sparta and its allies dominated the land, while Athens and its allies dominated the sea.Solon outlawed debt slavery and tried to reduce poverty by encouraging trade.Pericles wanted Athens to be the most glorious city in Greece, and he wanted its people to be proud of their city.After Plataea, the Persians gave up on their invasion and agreed to a peace settlement.Who was Pericles, and what did he do for the city of Athens?There, the Spartans held off the entire Persian army for several days.To encourage more people to participate in government, he introduced payment for those who served in public offices or on juries.

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Solon drew up the law code that was requested from him, which tried to appeal to both nobles and the lower classes.But not all people were able to take part in the government.The next year, in 479 BC, a huge Greek army led by the full might of Sparta crushed the Persians near Plataea.Later, the kings were replaced by aristocrats who had both money and power.Athens, though it was a very limited democracy.Women, children, and immigrants had no role in the government; nor did slaves.

Athenians set out to meet their foe.The Battle of Salamis changed the nature of the war.Each tribe also elected one of the generals that led the Athenian army.Why would Solon leave?Among the cities that sent aid was Athens, who supplied ships to the Ionian rebels.He wanted to be sure that his law code would be effective in keeping order in Athens even if he was not there to enforce it.After Thermopylae, the Persians marched south to Athens, which the Greeks had evacuated.

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To break up the power of noble families, Cleisthenes divided Athens into 10 tribes based on where people lived.Tensions flared up again after a few decades.As its leader, Athens gained more influence in Greece.Thebes defeated Sparta, but it could not maintain control either.He made these new tribes, not families or social groups, the basis for elections.Athens and its allies feared the military might of the other league.Delos, the alliance became known as the Delian League.

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The main role of the Council, which had been created by Cleisthenes, was to write the laws that would be voted on by the full assembly.Demoralized, they were no longer a match for the Greeks.In the year 594 BC, the leaders of the polis of Athens asked an aristocrat named Solon to write a new law code for the city.Who ordered the first Persian invasion of Greece?

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